In the aftermath of a tragic automobile accident involving Maribel Quilez–Bonelli, the legal landscape became a battleground where questions of liability and damages played out in a diversity case. The case revolved around a collision between Maribel’s Jeep Liberty and a truck belonging to the Municipality of San Juan, fitted with an underride guard designed by Ox Bodies, Inc.

The subsequent legal proceedings raised crucial issues, leading to a jury finding Ox Bodies strictly liable for defective design and awarding damages totaling $6,000,000. However, the complexities did not end there, as the court grappled with questions of contribution, joint liability, and the admissibility of expert testimony.

Admissibility of Expert Testimony

Ox Bodies appealed, challenging the court’s decision to admit testimony from the plaintiff’s expert, Perry Ponder, regarding an alternative underride guard design. The court, however, affirmed the decision, asserting that Ponder’s expertise and analysis met the standards set by Federal Rule of Evidence 702.

Despite Ox Bodies’ contention that testing was necessary for admissibility, the court maintained that Ponder’s methodology, including crash-test data analysis and stress calculations, provided a reliable foundation for his opinions. This decision highlights the nuanced nature of expert testimony admissibility, emphasizing the need for a flexible, case-specific approach.

Limitation of Damages and Joint Liability

The central focus of the appeal by Maribel’s family, collectively known as Quilez, was the court’s decision to limit damages against Ox Bodies to 20% of the total award ($1,200,000) and deny joint and several liability for the entire $6,000,000.

The court’s reasoning hinged on the interpretation of Puerto Rico law and precedents such as Cortijo Walker, Widow of Andino, and Rosario Crespo.
The magistrate judge drew parallels between the municipal damages cap and the workmen’s compensation remedial restriction, concluding that Ox Bodies lacked a contribution right against the Municipality of San Juan.

However, Quilez challenged this interpretation, arguing that the municipal damages cap did not equate to the workmen’s compensation restriction, and Ox Bodies should be held jointly and severally liable.
Quilez highlighted the general rule of joint and several liability in Puerto Rico, placing the risk of non-payment on defendants rather than plaintiffs.

Certification of the Question

Recognizing the complexity and potential gaps in existing precedents, the court took a cautious approach by certifying a question to the Supreme Court of Puerto Rico.
The certified question asks whether the magistrate judge correctly limited damages against Ox Bodies and denied joint and several damages.
This step reflects the court’s acknowledgment of the need for guidance from the highest legal authority in Puerto Rico to resolve the lingering uncertainties in this case.


The Quilez–Bonelli case serves as a legal labyrinth where questions of liability, damages, and expert testimony intertwine. The court’s decisions on the admissibility of expert testimony and the limitation of damages underscore the intricate nature of tort law.

By certifying a question to the Puerto Rico Supreme Court, the federal court recognizes the importance of obtaining clarity on crucial legal issues, emphasizing the need for a well-defined legal framework to address the complexities of unique factual scenarios.

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